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ASTM A678 Grade C is categorized as Carbon Steel. It is composed of (in weight percentage) 0.22% Carbon (C), 1.00-1.60% Manganese (Mn), 0.04%(max) Phosphorus (P), 0.05%(max) Sulfur (S), 0.20-0.50% Silicon (Si), 0.20% Copper (Cu), and the base metal Iron (Fe). Another common designation of ASTM A678 Grade C carbon steel is UNS K02204.

A678 Steel Sheet Fabrication

Steel is the common name for a large family of iron alloys. Steels can either be cast directly to shape, or into ingots which are reheated and hot worked into a wrought shape by forging, extrusion, rolling, or other processes. Wrought steels are the most common engineering material used, and come in a variety of forms with different finishes and properties. Carbon steels alloying elements do not exceed these limits: 1% carbon, 0.6% copper, 1.65% manganese, 0.4% phosphorus, 0.6% silicon, and 0.05% sulfur.

The typical elastic modulus of carbon steels at room temperature (25°C) ranges from 190 to 210 GPa. The typical density of carbon steels is about 7.85 g/cm3. The typical tensile strength varies between 276 and 1882 MPa. The wide range of ultimate tensile strength is largely due to different heat treatment conditions.